The purposes of environmental conditioning are different:
- improving the physical well-being of people
- enable the correct operation of the equipment, removing the heat generated by it and keeping the temperature of the rooms within acceptable limits with respect to the technology used
In order to achieve these objectives, it is necessary to design the system, knowing the seasonal values of relative humidity and temperature outside the room, the volumes to be air-conditioned and the technical details useful for plant sizing.
In a domestic air conditioning system, the refrigeration unit, consisting essentially of a refrigeration compressor and an air condenser, is usually installed outdoors (typically on a balcony). A hole in the masonry allows the hydraulic and electrical connection, which continues inside ducts specifically created inside the walls of the accommodation. In the internal rooms, (often in strategic points, such as living rooms and bedrooms), one or more splits are positioned, i.e. the refrigeration devices, inside which the refrigerant fluid evaporates, which, receiving the user’s commands (often by means of a convenient remote control), draws in the internal air, releasing it treated, which has the desired thermo-hygrometric characteristics. In hot-humid environments, the system cools the air and dehumidifies it, producing dry air and water. The discarded water is conveyed into hydraulic pipes and expelled into the network, but can also be collected in a pot and reused for irrigation.
Usually several indoor units are combined with one outdoor unit, so that costs are considerably reduced. There are also many air conditioners on the market without an outdoor unit to improve the aesthetics of historic buildings.